Monday, January 23, 2012

Muhammad: The most honest merchant emulate

Muhammad: The most honest merchant emulate

REPUBLIKA.CO.ID, most soil conditions in the Hejaz region, especially around Mecca, is a dry, sandy, rocky, and water scarce. No agricultural products that can be picked in the region.Therefore, the livelihoods of residents in the area in particular is trading. Trading activity is no exception also done by the Prophet Muhammad.
Prophet's father, Abdullah, had died when the Prophet was still in the womb. His mother, Aminah, died following a six year later, so Muhammad was raised by his grandfather, Abdul Muttalib. After the death of her grandfather, the lapse of two years later, Muhammad was living with his uncle, Abu Talib, who is a merchant, like many other leaders of the Quraysh.
The uncle of Muhammad was acquainted with the world trade for the first time. Afzalur Rahman in the Encyclopedia of Muhammad As Wholesalers, explained, Muhammad grew up under the care of Abu Talib and continued to learn about this business trade from his uncle.
Like most young men who are honest and self-esteem, the Prophet did not like to linger a dependent poor uncle. So, he worked as a shepherd for Makkah with a small reward on his childhood. When growing up and realizing that his uncle was not being as well as having a large family should be living, the Prophet began to trade in the city of Makkah.
In his profession as a merchant wrestle and did not just earn a lawful order to meet living costs, but also to build a reputation for rich people coming in and entrust their funds to him.
Armed with his experience in the trade and the well-known reputation as a trusted and honest trader, he gained a lot of opportunities to trade with the capital of others, including the capital of a wealthy businessman Khadija, who later became his wife.
Ideal entrepreneur
''I was not given a revelation to accumulate wealth or to be one of the merchants,''Prophet SAW. Rasulullahi ideal has become a successful trader and gives instructions on how to be an ideal and successful trader. He always held the principle of honesty and fairness in dealing with customers.
Muhammad always follow the principles of fair trade in every transaction. He also always advised his companions to do the same.
When it came to power and became head of state Medina, he has completely eroded the trade transactions of all kinds of practices that contain elements of fraud, usury, gambling, uncertainty, doubt, exploitation, excessive profit-making, and the black market.
Prophet Muhammad also to standardize weights and measures, and forbade the people to use standard weights and other measures that are less able to hold onto.
For example, when starting a trading business by becoming an agent of Khadija, the Prophet SAW profit that exceeded expectations. Not a penny cent darkened and not a removal.
The Prophet said,''because you Berdaganglah the livelihood of more than ten, nine of which resulted from the trade.''Qur'an also provides motivation for Muslims to trade as described in sura Al-Baqarah [2] Paragraph 198: "It's not a sin you seek the gifts (sustenance of commerce) from your Lord ".

Muhammad: Judge fairest

Explicitly mentioned in the Koran that the Creator has appointed the Prophet as a judge. The appointment is contained in sura al-Nisa '[4] Paragraph 61, 65, and 105; sura Al-Shura' [42] paragraph 15; and surah An-Nur verse [24] 51.
Surah An-Nur [24] Paragraph 51 indicates that his position as a judge is inseparable from his position as an apostle. He acted as judge and messenger of Allah.
Prophet Muhammad is recognized as the originator of the legal history of the greatest, because he did not just judge the case fairly and impartially, but also establishes the legal principle of universal and equal for all mankind.
Course covers all aspects of life: the protection of life, property and honor, and protect the rights of personal, social, legal, civil and religious individuals. Whatever role he run in his capacity as a legislator is a timeless example that shows the greatness and justice for all future generations.
Muhammad asserts that God's law is universal in scope and beneficiaries, impartial and fair in its application, and the eternal nature. Therefore, he stressed that the law should be above all man-made laws and regulations.
Prophet taught that every man must submit, either individually or jointly, all rights and law-making to him. Therefore, humans are not given the right to make any law without his authority.
As humans, the Prophet Muhammad was subject to the sovereignty of the Divine as any other human being. Therefore, he does not have the right to govern the people according to their own volition to do or not do something.
Afzalur Rahman in the Encyclopedia of Muhammad As Judge, explaining, in upholding the rule of law, the Prophet always refers to the legal system that Allah is the source of all law. The whole basis of Islamic law is that God alone is the holder of sovereignty and power are real, while the men acting as his representative or his caliphs in the earth.
Prophet Muhammad has clearly described the aspects of Islamic law through a lot of ways. He emphasized the obligation of Muslims to obey the Koran. Then, about the position of the Sunnah in the presence of the Qur'an, the Prophet declared, "I told him not to cancel the command of God, but God's command to cancel the order." (HR Daruquthni).

Legislators first Islamic
In the Koran there are a number of verses that deal with legal issues. The verses include the issue of inheritance, marriage, dowry, divorce, gratuities (gifts), estate planning, buying and selling, protection, security and criminal.
But in a world constantly changing and evolving, some of these legal issues can not cover all situations and new problems.Therefore, the Qur'an has ordered the legislators in the future to formulate the laws according to the needs of the time and place under the direction of the basic principles of Islam, making sure everything is in accordance with the spirit of Islamic law and not violate the underlying principles.
In this case, the Prophet is the first Muslim legislator. He interprets the law of the Koran and provide comments to him and explain the procedures for application of the Koran into the practical problems of life. He can not change or alter any divine law contained in the Koran. He acts only as an interpreter and commentator, then apply them in diverse situations

Muhammad: the greatest statesman of All Time

12 Rabiul Awal is an important date for Muslims throughout the world. On that date, the noblest and greatest men of all time was born into the earth. The greatest human being named Muhammad - the messenger of Allah Almighty - who brought the teachings of Islam.
According to John L. Esposito in the Oxford Encyclopedia, Muhammad was a prophet and messenger of God who raised one of the world's great civilizations. No wonder if Michael H. Hart, in his book The 100, establish Muhammad as the most influential figures in human history.
''He was the only person who managed to achieve remarkable success, both in terms of both religious and secular,''said Hart.Muhammad is not only known as a leader of Muslims, he is also known as a statesman greatest, fairest judges, merchants terjujur, a great military leader and humanitarian fiercest fighters.
Prophet Muhammad proved to have been able to lead a nation that initially underdeveloped and fragmented, become a developed nation that is even capable menggalahkan other nations in the world at that time. Afzalur Rahman in the Encyclopedia of Muhammad As Statesman, reveals, within less than a decade, Muhammad managed to achieve many accomplishments who are unable to emulate the leader of any country.

As a ruler, Muhammad has given outstanding contribution to the building of political philosophy and practice of government. This contribution is a living example that proves his greatness as a statesman of genius with extraordinary skill.
Muhammad's leadership qualities seen since young, before becoming a prophet. Attitudes and behavior are honest and fair in their interaction created by the people of Mecca in his honor.Mecca Society was called Al-Amin (the trustworthy) and Sadiq (the truthful).
In the early years, Muhammad is able to resolve disputes among the tribes of Quraish related to the problem of return of the Black Stone into place. In the midst of a tough debate, Muhammad took a very smart decision to resolve the situation was complicated.
He spread a cloak on the ground and demanded that the Black Stone is placed in the middle stretch of the cloak. He then asked each tribe holding the end of the cloak and together raise the Black Stone and put it back into place. Dispute was settled amicably.
Leadership of the Prophet Muhammad as a head of state begins when the Muslims migrated from Mecca to Medina. In the second holy city for Muslims that is, the small community of Muslims under Muhammad's leadership assembled.
In the early days of life in Medina, the Prophet Muhammad faced with difficult situations. The life muhajirin poor, helpless, and do not have the means of life. Meanwhile, the Quraysh of Mecca threatened to attack Madina, destroy the Muslim community is still small.
Jews-Medina also conspired with the idolaters of Mecca for Muslims hostile. Not only that, a number of Arab tribes around Medina also demonstrated hostility towards the new faith, and at the same time began to develop the hypocrites among the Muslims of Medina itself
Whoever, powerful and rich though, definitely overwhelmed by the pressure and burden. However, Muhammad was able to resolve difficult and unexpected situations with effective and successful.This proves the statesmanship and prowess in the field of politics.

Facing the fact that it's very difficult, Muhammad took steps to strengthen the newly established Islamic state that is socially, politically and economically. He was able to establish political authority and maintain law and order throughout the tribal areas in and around Medina.
Then, Muhammad made various agreements with Arab tribal chiefs and the Jewish tribes around Medina. Through a series of steps that the Prophet Muhammad is able to bring the Islamic State of Medina as an active state of political play various roles throughout the region.
Marshall G Hodgson in his article titled The Venture of Islam, said, "Muhammad Society consists of Muslims and non-Muslims in various degrees of membership."
Since then, Hodgson writes, that community is no longer just a new tribe of believers, or even just a gathering of local revolutionary. ''The people consist of various heterogeneous elements are organized better than the system of Makkah community organizations, both religiously and politically,''said Hodgson.

Political structure that was built Muhammad, said Hodgson, a building that is now known as the state, like other countries that surround the Arabian Peninsula, complete with the authority of governance based on rule of law.
To run the wheel of his reign, said Hodgson, Muhammad sent a number of delegates assigned to teach the Koran and Islamic principles, to collect alms, and mediate a variety of disputes in order to maintain peace and prevent hostilities.
Thus, the Muslims of Medina gave birth to a way of life and create a fair and valuable divinity throughout the Hijaz region, even in areas outside of it.

Muhammad: Leader of the greatest military

Peace is a basic principle of life in Islam. In Islam, war is a last resort of urgency when there was no other choice. Islam, in addition to meaning "peace" also means "surrender" and "obey" the commands of Allah - the creator, ruler, and the owner of the universe.
In Islam, the war comes back to restore the conditions for peaceful and orderly. Thus, each individual can carry conviction freely, without fear and coercion. As the leader of the Muslims, Muhammad was forced to fight to protect his people from the vandals and detractors that prevent him and his companions to obey the law of Allah.
However, as soon as conditions of peace is reached, all the fighting must be stopped. Because, peace is a basic principle of life in Islam. Afzalur Rahman in Muhammad as leader of the Military Encyclopedia, explained, when all the path of peace is unattainable and his enemies began to conduct military operations, the Prophet immediately formulate a strategy of war.
Rasulullah SAW mobilize all resources, both troop strength, maturity, war strategy, as well as logistical support to thwart attack enemy forces. The action was carried out with due attention to strategy number of casualties on both sides can be reduced to a minimum.
In many wars, the Prophet SAW formulate military strategy with excellent geographical conditions based on their ability to read and calculate the strength, mobility, morale, and the enemy's weak point strategy. ''The strategy of war was decided when he will make an assessment (assessment) of all the factors that determine the success of military operations,''said Afzalur.
Prophet Muhammad also pays close attention to the importance of the psychological effects of a surprise attack. Similarly, the secrecy of movement, speed, strength and mobility in combat.
D nature organizes the acquisition of information about enemy movements and plans, he sent a reconnaissance patrol and special combat patrols around the area of ​​combat and other strategic areas. Intelligence forces were formed to obtain information about the secret plan that will be launched by the enemy.
''The Prophet Muhammad also set up special forces who perform the duties of confidentiality; also a special unit to anticipate the various rumors and dissemination of information and to make the movement of enemy forces demoralized,''said Afzalur.
All units were hard working, disciplined, and have a high spirit of sacrifice for the sake of Islam. With this strategy, the Prophet could save the cost of military operations in minimizing the number of casualties on both sides.

Military leadership of the Prophet SAW
The success of military operations are naturally highly dependent on the commander's leadership qualities. Commander who take full responsibility in making decisions, utilizing a variety of strategic factors, set the attack, maintaining the confidentiality of war strategy, mobilize all forces, as well as fueling and maintaining the morale of his troops.
As a military leader, Muhammad is the figure of the brave.Despite the distress and often face a barrage of doom, he never show weakness or fear. Prophet Muhammad fought in various battles. Despite successive attacks, he never moved an inch left his place.
In fact, the Prophet Muhammad has always been closest to the enemy ranks when the battle raged. He stayed and fought at his position when others retreated helter-skelter. It was evident at the Battle of Uhud and Hunain. Thanks to the courage and composure difficult and precarious situation in the two wars can be overcome.
The ability to control yourself is one key to a successful battle.And, the Prophet Muhammad is known to control themselves in all situations. For example, at the Battle of Uhud, many members of his troops panicked when the enemy counter-attacked and surrounded them from all directions.
In fact, not a few of his troops fled from the battlefield. In situations of this confusion, the Prophet still able to control themselves.Even with his expertise, he was able to change the situation.Muhammad always showed hate discrimination and unfair behavior. Both of these noble qualities he also applied to his troops on the battlefield.
In the Battle of Badr, Muhammad set up rows of troops by holding the arrow. Upon learning that Sawad ibn Ghaziyah stood outside the line, the Messenger of belly poking Sawad with bow and say, "Hi Sawad, come in a row!". "You hurt me, Messenger of Allah," exclaimed Sawad, "God sent you with truth and justice then let me back!". So the Prophet Muhammad menyingsikan shirt in the stomach and said, "Reciprocate." However, even hugging and kissing Sawad stomach Muhammad.
As a military commander, the Prophet is also known for his always adhered to the truth. He always provides a very substantial argument when it must strive to face his enemy.Muhammad always held high ethical war, which did not hurt and kill children and women of the enemy, and not cutting down trees for the sake of preservation of natural
Editors: Heri Ruslan

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