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Monday, January 23, 2012
This is Salafiyyah Movement Characters
This is Salafiyyah Movement Characters
REPUBLIKA.CO.ID, By Heri Ruslan
Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal He is a scholar and Muslim intellectuals in the history of Islamic civilization. Muslims in Indonesia used to call Imam Hambali. The figure of the founder of the School of Hanbali jurist was so popular and legendary. However, scholars who had memorized a million hadiths and always appear understated it never felt like much less well known. Ahmad ibn Hanbal known as a brilliant scholar who brained.Intelligence recognized the great scholars of his day. Author of a series of books is important for Muslims it is also known as a scholar of high knowledgeable, virtuous, and noble. The glory that is inside of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal had made his teachers amazed and proud. Imam Shafi'i was nicknamed his student as a priest in the eight areas. Imam of hadith, Imam in fiqh, Imam in the language, the Imam in the Qur'an, Imam of indigence, in asceticism Imam, Imam in the wara ', and Priest in the sunna. He was born in Merv, Central Asia (now Turkmenistan), on 20 Rabiul Awal year 164 H.He dies in Baghdad on 12 Rabi'ul Beginning in 241 AH, at the age of 77.
Ibn Taymiyyah Ibn Taymiyyah is a scholar and a respected Islamic thinkers as persona and breadth of his knowledge. He has written thousands of books. He dubbed various titles, such as Shaykh al-Islam, Imam, Qudwah, 'Alim, Zahid, Preacher, and so forth. He's full name is Ahmad ibn Salam ibn Abdis Abdillah ibn al-Khidr ibn Muhammad ibn Taymiyyah Numairy An-al-al-Dimasyqy Harrany. Born in Harran, a city carrier in the Arabian Peninsula that lies between the river Dajalah (Tigris) and Euphrates, on Monday, 12 Rabi 'Early 661 AH (1263 AD).
While still in his teens years, Ibn Taymiyyah had memorized the Koran and learn some science in the city of Damascus to the famous scholars of his time. He later became the father of the Islamic renewal movement Salafiya through which he developed.
Ibn Qayyim Al-Jauziyah
His full name of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr ibn Ayub ibn Sa'ad ad-Damsyiq Zur'i. The great scholar is better known as Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jauziyah. He is a scholar, expert commentary, penghafal Koran, Nahwu expert, suggested fiqh, the science of kalam, and also a mujtahid (jurist) famous. Not only that, Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jauziyah also known as a Muslim scholar and leading jurist of the Hanbali school who lived during the 13th century AD. Cleric who holds Shamsuddin Abu Abdullah was born in Damascus, Syria in 691 AD H/1292, and died in 751 AD H/1352 He was a disciple of Ibn Taymiyyah who was a fanatic.
Jamaluddin Al-Afgani His full name is Jamaluddin al-Afgani as-Sayyid Muhammad ibn al-Husayn Shafdar. he is better known by Jamaluddin al-Afgani.The Islamic world knew him as a Muslim thinker, political activist, and journalists. Al-Afgani hatred against colonialism and agitator makes framers understood as well as movements of nationalism and pan-Islamism are persistent, both through his speeches and writings. In the midst of the decline of the Muslims, al-Afgani become a figure who so influenced the development of thought and social action in the 19th century and the 20th. He was born in the village of Asadabad, Konar District, Afghanistan in 1838, al-Afgani still has blood ties with the Prophet Muhammad's grandson, Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib. In 1879, al-Afgani form a political party with the name of Hizb al-Watani (National Party).
Muhammad Abduh His full name was Muhammad Abduh ibn Hasan ibn Khairullah.He was born in a village in the district Mahallat Nasr al-Bahira, Egypt in 1849 AD and died in 1905 AD The first educational ditekuni Abduh Muhammad, is to learn the Koran. At age 12, he had memorized the Koran. As a student at Al Azhar, Abduh in 1869 met with a cleric 'great reformer in the Muslim world at the same time, Jamaluddin al-Afghani, in a discussion. Since then Abduh was attracted to the idea Jamaluddin Al-Afghani and a lot to learn from him. Al-Afghani much influence the thinking of Muhammad Abduh.
Rashid Rida He's full name is Mohammed bin Rashid Rida bin Shamsuddin bin Ali Al-Baha Al-Husaini Qalmuni. However, the Islamic world to get to know the name of Muhammad Rashid Rida. He was born in the area Qalamun (a village not far from the city of Tripoli, Lebanon) on 27 Jumada H 1282 Early in 1865 coincides with M. In addition to his lessons at the school where he studied, Rashid Rida also diligent in following some of the development of the Islamic world through the newspaper Al-Al-Wusqo'Urwah (an Arabic-language newspaper run by Jamaluddin Al-Afghani and Muhammad Abduh, and published during the period their exile in Paris). Through this newspaper, Rashid Rida familiar with the idea of two prominent reformers who so admired, namely Jamaluddin Al-Afghani, a reformist leader of Afghanistan, and Muhammad Abduh, a reformer of Egypt. Brilliant ideas who published it so memorable in itself and raises a strong desire to join and sit under the two men.
Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan is known as a prominent reformer among Muslims in India in the 19th century. He was born in India in 1817. Ancestors came from the Arabian Peninsula who later moved to Herat, Persia (Iran), because of political pressure at the time of the Umayyad dynasty.
Gait Salafiyyah in Modern Era
Modern Salafiyyah is a dimensionless reform movement of religious, cultural, social, political and established Jamaludin Al-Afghani and Muhammad Abduh at the beginning of the 20th century AD Entering the 19th century AD, the Islamic world is really down.Almost the entire Muslim world is in the grip of colonialism.Muslims really stuck on blind imitation and stagnation experienced in various fields, whether educational, social, political, and cultural. In the midst of the Islamic world that it's really retarded, Jamaludin Al-Aghani (1839-1897) and Muhammad Abduh (1849-1905) turn on and set up a modern Salafiyyah. According to John L. Esposito, modern Salafi unlike in the classical era. ''Salafiya essentially modern and modernist intellectuals and its purpose is more diverse,''said Esposito. What is clear, Jamaludin Afghani Al-Salafiyyah movement through the establishment tries to restore Islam to its pure form, and reform the conditions of moral, cultural, and political Islam. Esposito define dimensionless Salafiyyah as a movement of religious reform, cultural, social, political and established Jamaludin Al-Afghani and Muhammad Abduh at the beginning of the 20th century AD ''The movement is aimed at updating of Muslim life and the formative impact on many Muslim thinkers and movements throughout the Muslim world,''said the professor for the field of Islamic Studies at Georgetown University, the United States. Both figures salafiyah movement that tries to bridge the historical gap between Islam and modernity. Through that way, al-Afghani and Abduh against stagnation, moral decay, political depotisme, and foreign domination. At that time, Western supremacy is very large, so that the Islamic world tend to be marginalized. Through his writings that was published in the journal al-Urwa al-Wustha, published on the Afghani and Abduh in 1884, both the Islamic reformers were trying to resuscitate an ailing Muslims.According to them, the fall of Islamic civilization does not lie in the teachings. Islamic civilization collapsed precisely because inflistasi foreign concepts and practices, disitegrasi Muslims, and the practice of political despotism (absolute rule by political power). In their view, distrorsi the most basic Islamic beliefs have made the Muslims to be submissive, passive, and subject to Western powers. As a result, Muslims stagnated and though stricken blind imitation of the traditionalist clergy. The problem is acute, it is considered Afghani and Abduh, as inhibiting the progress of Islam. Not only that. Social and moral disease is also a penjegal for the Islamic world to pursue and achieve independence. In order for the Islamic world not subject to the West, Afghani tried to assert the validity of Islam in modern times and proving conformity with reason and science. ''For the Afghani and Abduh, Islam gives the foundation of progress to Muslims,''said Esposito. Both opened the eyes of Muslims that Islam glorifies and assert the sovereignty of the people on earth. Islam also weigh the Muslims to unity, and also support the search for knowledge and progress. Steps taken by the characters bearers of modern Salafi movement is to restore pride to their religious Muslim. In addition, paved the way for the reinterpretation of Islam in accordance with the modernity and legitimize the decision as a scientific and technology achievements of the West. According to Esposito, the reinterpretation of Islam being rolled Afghani and Abduh had formed the second great principle of modern Salafiyyah. Like the classical Salafi thinkers, modern Salafi supporters also keep emphasizing the importance of monotheism, purification keyaknian and Muslim practices of the addition, and the recovery of the pure form of Islam. Abduh summarizes the purpose of Salafiyyah as follows:''Freeing the mind from the shackles of imitation, and understanding of religion as understood by ancestor before the appearance of disunity; turned back, in acquiring knowledge of religion to its first source, and weigh in the balance of human reason. The modern reformers, said Esposito, also believes that the Koran is the uncreated word of God, and reject the esoteric interpretation of the verses. Despite attempts to return to the Qur'an, Sunnah and Hadith sahih, modern Salafi attempt to make the synthesis between text with reason. ''They consider revelation and reason entirely harmonious,''said Esposito. If it seems there is a contradiction, they use reason to reinterpret the text. In interpreting the Koran, modern Salafi tries to relate it to contemporary conditions. That approach helped arouse message viewed the Koran, to restore its relevance, and make it more understandable layman's Muslim community. With the emphasis back to the fundamental sources of Islam, salafiyah thinkers tried to reopen the potential of ijtihad. The third foundation of modern Salafiyyah is a reform that is comprehensive and gradual. Education became a rock of departure for the reform plan being rolled bearers of modern Salafiyyah. How, by combining Islamic and modern education.That's how Muslims are expected to get up and catch up from the West
Deployment trail Salafiya As a teaching and at the same movement, Salafiyah spread to many countries in the Muslim world. In each region, Salafiyyah movement that carried the scholars and intellectuals have the focus of struggle is different. In Algeria, Ibn Badis focus on reforms in education. This was done in an effort to fight the French colonial policies that tend to harm the Muslims in the region. Ibn Badis are also used as a means to save Salafiyah national identity, as well as combating Sufi orders. ''Together with other reformist scholars, Ibn Badis founded the Association of Algerian Ulama,''said John L. Esposito. The role of Salafiyyah movement in the country is very prominent in the struggle for independence. Neo-Salafi movement also appeared in Morocco in the 19th century. Was Abu al-Dukkali Syu'aib and Muhammad Ibn Al-Arabi Al-Alawi, who led the reform movement. The movement was also a lot of merit in the struggle for Moroccan independence political party founded by the leaders of Salafiyyah. In Tunisia, at the beginning of the 19th century AD, Salafi movement also evolved under some scholars, such as Shafar Bashir, Al-Tahir ibn Muhmamad Assyria, Assyria Ibn Muhammad Fadhil, and Abdul Aziz Al-Tsa'alibi. In that country, the Party advocates Destour is Salafiyyah and Islamic reform. In India, Sayyid Ahmad Khan (1817-1898) also animate the movement of Islamic modernism. The movement had a profound impact for reform among the Muslims of India. In the land of Hindustan has also appeared intellectual support other Salafi movement named Mohammed Iqbal (1875-1938. He was trying to combine Western and Islamic education to overcome the adversity faced by Muslims. Salafi movement in Indonesia is much influenced by the ideas and the reform movement of Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab in the Arabian Peninsula. According to the Encyclopedia of Islam, Salafi ideas first brought into the area of the archipelago by some scholars from West Sumatra in the early 19 th century AD, who later gave birth Padri movement that lasted from 1803 until 1832.One of the main character is Tuanku Imam Bonjol. Salafi ideas and ideas also influences the birth of a number of Islamic organizations in Indonesia, such as Muhammadiyah, Persis, and Al-Ershad. Islamic organizations voiced concern that spelled out the importance of returning to the Qur'an and the Sunna. Memberantasan superstition, heresy, and superstition is a key issue which also carried these organizations, at the beginning.
Know Salafiya: Early and Roots
Salafiyyah is turned on by Ibn Taymiyyah, because at that time, Muslims suffered a setback or age dogmatic era.
The teachings of Islam spread throughout the world. The Muslims were faced with new situations and diverse intellectual challenge.Of course, that challenge must quickly respond with solutions that fit with Islamic values. ''In addition to using the Koran, Muslims also use rational thought to explain the concepts and doctrines of Islam,''said John L. Esposito in the Oxford Encyclopedia. The Muslims used the technique to explain the various problems, such as the existence of God, the nature ilhahi, the nature of the Koran, to answer the question of whether God will be seen in heaven. After the death of Caliph Uthman ibn Affan at 35 H/656 AD, the conflict among the Muslims began to sharpen. Controversy related to various topics, such as faith, the sinner's status, the nature of human action, freedom and determination, and the priesthood has spawned a variety of theological streams, such as Qadiriyah, Jabariyah, Shifatiyah, Kharijites, and Mu'tazilites. The emergence of various schools of theology that was ignited enmity between his followers. ''Conditions were invited concern Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, founder of the four Sunni schools,''said Esposito. Thus, Ibn Hanbal lined up to star as a spokesperson salafiyah classic. He wants the Muslims to get back to the teachings of Islam pure and simple based on the Qur'an, the Sunna, and Hadith of the Salaf. The term Salafi, according sebagain circles, first appeared in the book Al-Ansaab by Abu Saad Abd al-Kareem al-Sama'ni, who died in 562 AD H/1166
Salafiyah said, according to Esposito, is derived from the root word salaf, which means''precedes''. The Qur'an uses the word salaf to refer to the past, in sura Al-Maidah  paragraph 95 and Al-Nafal  Paragraph 38. ''In the Arab lexicon, is the ancestor of the pious Salaf,''said the professor for the field of Islamic Studies at Georgetown University, the United States. As a spokesperson for the classical Salafis, Ibn Hanbal has laid a number of Salafi doctrine. First, the primacy of revelation over reason text. According to him, there is no contradiction between revelation or scripture and reason. Second, resist the discipline kalam (theology). Looked at the issues raised Salafiya schools of theology as something heretical. Thirdly, Ibn Hanbal emphasized the importance of strict adherence to the Qur'an, the Sunna, and consensus (Consensus) of the pious ancestors. ''Ibn Hanbal memagang Qur'an and the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad as an authoritative source in understanding the problems of religion,''said the professor for the field of Religion and International Relations at Georgetown University, the United States.
Bergilirnya Over time, the Salafi approach began to evolve in handling the various problems faced by Muslims. Salafi movement then turned on again by Ibn Taymiyyah, Muslim scholars and thinkers who lived between the 13th century and the 14 M. Salafiyyah is turned on by Ibn Taymiyyah, because at that time, Muslims suffered a setback era. Moreover, after the city of Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate was destroyed in an invasion of the Mongols in 1258 AD Islamic world for seven centuries earlier began to experience the darkness shine. The Islamic world has kemunduranalam various fields, both religious thought, political, social, and moral. Merajarela injustice, powerless ruler, and the scholars no longer purely biased diligence. At that time, Muslims are in an age of imitation. The period is called dogmatic historians and thinkers of Islam as a period of decline. In the mid-13th century AD, the Muslim community who become worshipers of many graves, prophets, religious leaders and figures of the congregation. They hope thanks to Anbia (the prophets) and aulia (the trustees). The Muslims in the era of the decline was likely to leave the Koran and the Sunna of the Prophet Muhammad. Islamic Society at that time stuck on shirk and innovations and more faith in superstition (strayed from Islamic theology), and superstition.Condition that makes Ibn Taymiyyah was moved to animate the movement of Salafiyyah Ibn Taymiyyah's opinion, three generations of early Islam, the Prophet Muhammad and the Companions of the Prophet, then Tabi is the generation that knew instantly the Companions of the Prophet, and Tabi'ut tabi'in the generation who know directly of the Tabi is the best example for Islamic life. The third generation of Muslims is commonly referred to as the Salaf. The doctrine that stands out from the Salafiyyah movement that turned on Ibn Taymiyyah, among others: the door is always open ijitihad all time; dogmatic or part of it without knowing its source is forbidden; to the required prudence and diligence in berfatwa; theological debate (kalamiah), such as Mu'tazilites, Jahamiyah and Another unavoidable; verses of the Koran and the Hadith which mutashabihat (not clearly point in one sense) is not interpreted and not ditakwilkan. Also known as the Salafi movement Tajdid movement (renewal).Some are calling it, Islah movement (repair) and the Reform movement. No wonder, if Ibn Taymiyyah ditabalkan as Mr. Tajdid, Mr. Islah, Mr. Reform, as well as the father of Reform in Islam.
Since then, the Salafi movement began to spread to various parts of the world. In pre-modern era, namely the 18th century AD, Salafi movement reinstated Muhammad bin Abdul Wahab (1703-1792) through Wahhabiyah. The movement was born as an attempt to reform the people who are experiencing the destruction, both morally and socially. A similar movement also influences the birth Sanusiyah and Mahdiyah. In fact, outside of the Arab movement emerged Usuman Dan Fodio (1754-1817) in Nigeria. In addition, there is also movement Sirhindi Ahmad (1564-1624), and Sayyid Ahmed Barelwi (1786-1831) in the Indian subcontinent. They inflame Islamic unity, religious purification, as well as moral and social reform.