Tuesday, December 13, 2011

Islamic Art

Islamic Art

Islam is a religion that was revealed by Allah to humanity without knowing people sourced from the Quran, Sunnah and the consensus of scholars. Islam is a real (waqi'e) and in accordance with human nature, in all places, times and circumstances meet the tastes, desires, character, desire, passion, emotion and the human mind.

In life, feelings, conscience and sense of man's desire like the beauty of its setting and the beauty is art. Art is something that is abstract, can be seen, heard and touched by the soul but can not be expressed through the words and language. It is difficult to accurately define art as difficult to explain the concept of beauty and pleasure in itself. Al-Farabi explains the creation of art as a form of beauty, Al-Ghazali explains the purpose of art work in connection with an appropriate sense of the human soul with nature.

According to Western culture, the art is actually no relationship with religion. This is due to the policy of secularism that separates the mundane matters of religion. However, art is still regarded as a moral ideal and relevant.

Art can also be divided by the dual purpose of art for art and art to society, where art for art is to create art and art alone is released for any purpose whether it contained elements of good or bad. While the arts for the community, however, states that the art created for a purpose then it must be understood by a society that is used for social, political and moral.

Eugene Johnson in The Encyclopedia Americana "explains art (art) as a skill, such as artisanship which means craftsmanship. In terms of knowledge and culture, it is meant to be all things beautiful. Can move the soul of beauty, romance, cause emotional, intricate, convenience or otherwise of revenge, hate, anxiety and so on.
Drs. Sidi Gazalba in his book, Ruling on Art 'explained that the arts are part of the culture created by a group of people for each group of people have a natural disposition to love the gentle art through the five senses. Therefore, people described as being a love of art to a safe, satisfying and rewarding through the senses.

Art is simply divided into four main sections:Art through the hearing, such as music, recitation of poetry, prose, Senia voice and so on.Art obtained through the eye, such as art, decorative arts, architecture, art, clothing and so on.Art that can be obtained through the hearing and sight, such as drama, pantomime, theater, film and so on.Art enjoyed reading as a form of literary works of poetry and prose.

Concept Art The Islamic Perspective

Islamic art is part of Islamic culture and the differences between Islamic and non Islamic art is in terms of intent or purpose and moral values ​​contained in the Islamic artwork. Achievements made by the Islamic art is also the contributions of Islamic civilization in which the purpose of Islamic art is for Allah.Although art is one element that contributed, but God forbid the creation of art to excess. Allah says which means: "Allah loves not transgressors."

The beauty is one of the oneness of features, the greatness and perfection of God and thus all that it has created also a beauty emissions. Human beings are made as of the most beautiful and perfect. Earth is a place man was placed also decorated with all the beauty.

God not only made man as a creature of the most beautiful but also has a love for the beauty of nature. Therein lies the privilege of human beings that are not owned by another whether angels, jinn and animals. The concept of Islamic arts and culture in contrast to other Islamic civilization.

In the development of art, essentially a framework must be comprehensive and cover aspects of morality, faith, religious and philosophical goals of human life. Art must be an educational process that is positive in the eyes of Islam, stirring, leading spiritual and moral development.

Means the art must be "Al-Amar Ma'ruf bills and An-Nahy 'an Munkar" (enjoining good and preventing evil) and develop morals of the community, not to bring evil and not as a moral pest community. All arts activities must be subjugated to men final destination (Allah's pleasure and piety). All values ​​must be brought to its knees in the relation and the willingness to surrender. Art is supposed to be a tool to increase piety.
The principles (characteristics) of Islamic Art

1. Lifting the human dignity by not leaving the value of humanity and the values ​​and global environment. Gallery environment, while people become artists menggarap all the artwork to bow down and submit to the pleasure of Allah.
2. Putting the question of morality and truth touching the aesthetic aspects, humanitarian, moral, and others.
3. Connects the beauty of Islamic art as a value that depends on the overall legitimacy of Islam itself. According to Islam, which has the highest art is to encourage the pursuit of piety, kema'rufan, validity, and its sound.

4. Islamic art are emitted from the revelation of God, as God's law and syariah. This means it should be under the environment and the rules of revelation. This is what distinguishes Islamic art with the art non-Muslims.

5. Islamic Art connects people with God, the environment and fellow human beings and creatures.Islam has never rejected the arts as long and as long as the art is not art for art to society and art. There are five laws in the art if detailed. Among them:

(A) Required: If art is very much needed by the Muslims for which the individual can fall without harm, such as the human need to build and beautify the mosque building design and landscape architecture (landscape) for the purpose of inducing the public to visit the house of Allah.

(B) Circumcision: If art is needed to help or raise the spirits of the consolidation of Islam such as the nasyid, qasida and blessings to the Prophet who uttered a mass in celebration of Prophet Muhammad's birthday, or art song (NANCY) al-Quran.

(C) Disapproved: If art is to bring the element of vanity (lagha) as works of art that are not needed by humans.

(D) Illegal: If art is a form of entertainment:People into complacency and neglected the duties which form the basic responsibility to worship God, especially as the obligatory ain and kifayah.Provide human imagination that can not distinguish between right (correct) and wrong (wrong).

Mixed with unclean things like alcohol, gambling, drugs and various other vices.There is mixing between men and women who are not mahram as unlimited free mixing in the form of extreme pleasure.

Objects or sculptures in the form of sculptures that resemble statues, whether made of wood, stone and others.Accompanied by musical instruments are forbidden by Islam, such as blowing equipment, rope, wasps are covered at the top and bottom as well as musical instruments from finger pressure.
Some scholars say that it should be legal if used for education and not attractive to the concept of al-Malahi (excessive entertainment) are also musical instruments above can be used for missionary purposes Islamiyya, as was done by Rabiatul Adawiyyah.

Art of damaging and harmful behavior in the form of individual or immoral as the latest dance (contemporary).The types of art on view for the purpose or intention of showing off and arrogance.(E) should be: What art form there is no injunction to ban it.
The aim of Art

In Islam, the art does not aim for entertainment, or pleasure purposes keduaniaan. Islam has laid the arts suited to the nature and the natural human instinct. Appropriate that the man driving the art in accordance with existing human nature with a leading Sharia boundaries and the well being of the soul and the human world.

Even if true artistic temperament, it is considered worship. It would harm the Muslim men who do not know bagaimama to bring creatures LIKE tendency towards piety to Allah. Islamic art is designed to produce a truly good and polite.

The concept of Islamic art and ready to be geared towards the concept of faith and devotion to Allah. Artistic motifs should aim ma'ruf things (good), lawful and ethical. Soul of art must be subjugated to the original nature of man as the freedom of the soul in the form of art is in accordance with the sanctity of God-given nature. Function of art is similar to the human mind to recognize the relationship between nature, the divine and the spiritual or physical. Thus it realizes the greatness of God and the unique creation.

Inculcate Islamic Art conscientiously to the peace of God in addition to the human soul as a creature of God is created by nature, who love the arts and beauty. Thus the art of Islam is not Slogan "art for art 'but' art for God to mankind, creatures and the environment '. Islamic art, which is emitted from an acceptance of faith and testimony in the oneness of Allah, then art can instill faith based nature of fear and faith. Art also can increase not only the intellectual and emotional.

The areas of Islamic Art

a) Writing KhatCalligraphy is the discipline which introduces a single letter forms, arrangement and how merangkainya into a structured writing. Khat is the art of calligraphy with fineness values ​​and the arts. High value because it is easily changed by as writing, but writing seems to have rhythm. It also relied on subjects related to religion and used to write verses from the holy and wise words (hukama ').

Expanded with the development of calligraphy works of art, and sometimes both these arts can not be separated from each other. It is also a beautifully written snippet of a sense of smoothness and sharpness of the art of human brain power to create paper art as symbols of the spoken word. The difference with the other characters are in terms of beauty, easily changed by, pledged to matters pertaining to religion and used to write verses.

The importance Seni Khat1. It has to do denganpeningkatan level of civilization itself. That is why it is the result of the activities developed and civilized society.

2. One of the purposes of the Prophet Muhammad to call Muslims to read and write verses of the Quran with care. And in this way difikrkan to facilitate them to learn and memorize.

3. The beauty of writing is the softness and fineness finger and taste of the author thought.4. Rasulallah s.a.w encourage the writing line. Rasullah Word says: "Be ye heed it narata calligraphy faucet key provision".

5. Ali once said: "Grace to your children with the arts write because writing is the most important and exciting".
Khat Art Types
Islamic Tamudun AAC with handwriting arts, also known as cell line. Khatnya contains eight main models and in addition is eight-eight branches of this model. Among the main line is the Kufi, Thuluth, Abrogation, Pharisees, Riq'ah, Diwani, Diwani Jali and Raihani.
Kufi handwriting come from Kufa. At the time of khat Abasiah are used as decorations in a variety of building mosques, government, domes or towers to prayer and is written in the form of bas-relief.
Khat Thuluth mostly used only for decoration, as in mashaf thmani (the Quran), the name of the book or books and for other purposes.
Abrogation Khat is the most widely used script in the writing of books on religion. This is because this type of writing legible handwriting, clear and not misleading
Khat Pharisees began to be developed in Persia (Persia). The form letter tilted slightly to the right. It is used for writing books, literature, the name and the title essay in magazines and newspapers. Urdu-language essays are often written in this line.
Riq'ah Khat can be written quickly. Therefore they are often used for the purpose of divulging correspondence and used by the students of universities and colleges to take lecture notes.
Diwani Khat. Diwani meaning catatanatau essay anthologies.Pemerinatahan emasa widely used around the year 1220H Khedewy Sultan of Egypt. It is used for writing official letters such as letters of agreement, letters of appreciation and so on.Functions also as a garnish.
Jali Diwani Khat. juka compared with khat diwani, there is more shape, complex writing, more beautiful and aesthetic. It was composed in the form of a boat, fish, birds and so on.
Raihani khat khat resembles thuluth, Chinese characters are very wide and long and plus signs syakal.
b) Writing (Literature)
While the art of writing associated with the art kesusatetraan Ula.Literature is a very warm response among the Muslims and it is happening because of Islamic literature sourced from the Quran and Al-Sunnah Al-Quran which literature can be seen from two aspects of the beauty of language and in terms of content.

Here can be seen that the results or literary contributions based on Al-Quran and al-Sunnah has led many Pagans who have converted to Islam only when listening to the Quran. For example, al-Walid, l-Mughirah which is well-known poet and critic at the time of the Jahilliyah most sharply to Rasulallah saw, Umar al-Khattab and Labid, Rabiah and Jubair bin Mat'am.

Holy Quran has crippled pride and kejaguhan segu literary beauty of the language of Arab literature and a more striking and it is not just thrill those who understand the Arabic language but also across the border periadi, language, ethnicity, culture, geography, rank and so on. Islamic literature began to spread by Rasulallah saw and continue to berkemabang at the time of the caliphs al-Rashidin, Umayyad and the Abbasid. In addition to the Quran, the Islamic literature works also include Crazy, Rubai ', Burdah, Prose, and so on.
c) Painting and Sculpture (carving)
Art paintings and sculptures as well as fine art dkenali.Miscellaneous goods produced art to jewelry made of gold, trees and stones, expensive and delicate carvings inijuga ENI available on home furniture, dishes, stiff books, tiles, ceramics, doors, tombs, and other ivory. Fine art is also available in the following objects including wood and metal is obtained at the time many Fatimiyah government.

Preferred metals are usually colored gold, silver and copper coins on the eyes for example, a kettle, a water bottle, jug, iron stove and brown hat. Similarly, ceramic art is also available at the plate while the art of embroidery and pottery made in the form of wall decoration textiles such as fabric, carpet mats, carpets, silk woven goods and so on. Decorative arts are usually shaped like kerawag, lighting and geometric shapes on the dome and others.

Ula began painting at the time of Caliph Muawiyah in Damascus and it biasnya sheets displayed on the Quran safhah a pattern decorated with paintings of flowers and pictures form araesque with a choice of gold, history books are decorated with pictures of beautiful colors such as al-date books and romances alfun Syahnama alLaial and story books. Islamic art is usually limited to painting the beauty of nature and does not include living things who can be lucky like animals, gods or idols.
d) Art building.

Another Islamic art is architecture, where it ferments impressive level. Architecture means that a field of art to erect buildings, the design created by humans. According to Ibn Khaldun's architecture is one of the most fundamental basic civilizations proceedings of a symbol or a demonic manifestation of a civilization. So based on this performance and the height of the greatness of a civilization can be measured.

The proof daat via the ancient civilizations of the great. At the time, produced quality architecture and still wujd waluun in the form of the old and almost collapsed.

Aspects of Islamic architecture's most important to note iala mosque architecture. This is because Islam has put the most important place of worship as a cri of a city. This we can see from seerah Rasullah saw when he migrated to Medina, the first thing he did was to find a suitable site to build a mosque.

The first mosque to be symbol of strength, faith, unity and solidarity of the Muslim ummah. The first mosque built in Madina Al-Nabawi is used by Rasulallah sqw as an overreach (education) and the administration in the economic strategy, culture, war and so on.

Parallel with the development time and stakeholders, developed and beautified the mosque ekemudiannya with various decorative elements based on their cultural backgrounds, ornamentif Muslim environment.

The architecture of the mosque became a symbol of greatness of western civilization, compared with, for the elements of civilization that developed in the cities of Islam emphasizes spiritual values ​​and at the same time the physical development dankebendaan not sidelined.
The important concept is the achievement of Islamic architecture dalamseni faith and charity, piety and tawadhu ', peace and harmony and humility to the majesty of God Pengagunan and erhiasan not be the goal of Islamic architecture, but for creativity and innovation mat, artists, artists and architects Muslim, it becomes a high art that is integrated with the use of pattern, color and mono forms that are based on the teachings of the Quran.Architectural interest of the ancient Muslim mosque in the city are illustrated with 241 mosques. In Cairo in the 15th century AD, there were 88 mosques Jamek (mosque uatama) and 19 small mosques

In terms of internal and external structure of the mosque, some things can dilhat asek especially from the pulpit, the direction, where is the priest, living erkumpul, pliers and the main pillar, anjug and foyer, chamber, place of ablution, the tower where the muezzin call to prayer chanted, domes and other more.
SEBI matters karektiristik bin i is a mosque, which saw its own keuhikannya compared to other art building. In addition, mosque architecture, highlighting many forms of blat, which is the most perfect form of softness and smoothness mencerminan as it is not berkesedahan.

Apart from the mosque, Islamic architecture also includes residential buildings, shops, bridges, saluranair, rest houses, bathrooms, libraries, schools and others. Architectural attributes to the symbol of Islam and based on faith to Allah and Islam emphasizes the design is greatly influenced by the architecture of mosques, such as palaces, taj Mahal, kta cities such as Baghdad, but in Malaysia itself synonymous Sultan Abdul Samad building, building kerertapi Malay land, buildings and land forces to add a description, courtesy of the gate.
e) Art Music (voice, music and sound)Among the entertainment can comfort and soothe the soul and heart and calm the telnga was singing. This is permissible in Islam as long as does not contain lyrics lirij-koto, misconduct, and that can lead to sin, and the music is no desire even encouraged to raise the entertainment as the feast, marriage, given away as gifts and time of birth of a child.
From 'A'isha that when he sent the bride to the man of the Ansar, the Prophet said: "O Ayesha! What they are accompanied by an entertainment? That rang mad Ansar of entertainment".There is no Arabic word that can diertikadengan the English term "music" as a whole. Oxford Student Encyclopedia administering music as organized sound patterns that can now be heard or expressed.

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